How To Install MariaDB on Debian 9

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MariaDB is a fork of the most popular MySQL database management system. It is developed by MariaDB Corporation Ab, led by original developers of MySQL.

MariaDB is fully compatible with MySQL database management system and is now considered as a full drop-in replacement.

Install MariaDB on Debian 9

You can obtain MariaDB packages for Debian 9 from two ways.

  1. Official MariaDB mirror (v10.4)
  2. Debian repository (v10.1)

1. Install MariaDB from Official MariaDB Mirror

MariaDB offers download mirrors for latest release of MariaDB packages for Debian 9. You can choose any one of the mirrors from the MariaDB download page to download and install it.

Add signing key to your system.

sudo apt-get install -y software-properties-common dirmngr

sudo apt-key adv --recv-keys --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com 0xF1656F24C74CD1D8

Output:

Executing: /tmp/apt-key-gpghome.PWRr8ysP7X/gpg.1.sh --recv-keys --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com 0xF1656F24C74CD1D8
gpg: key F1656F24C74CD1D8: 6 signatures not checked due to missing keys
gpg: key F1656F24C74CD1D8: public key "MariaDB Signing Key <signing-key@mariadb.org>" imported
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1

Add MariaDB repository using the add-apt-repository command.

sudo add-apt-repository 'deb [arch=amd64,i386,ppc64el] http://nyc2.mirrors.digitalocean.com/mariadb/repo/10.4/debian stretch main'

Install MariaDB server using the following command.

sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install -y mariadb-server mariadb-client

Run sudo mysql_secure_installation command to do initial set up to secure MariaDB installation.

NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB
      SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!

In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user. If you've just installed MariaDB, and
haven't set the root password yet, you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none):  << No Password - Press Enter
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password or using the unix_socket ensures that nobody
can log into the MariaDB root user without the proper authorisation.

You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'.

Switch to unix_socket authentication [Y/n] N  << Disabling Unix Socket login and enabling password Login
 ... skipping.

You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'.

Change the root password? [Y/n] Y  << Change MariaDB root password
New password:   << Enter Password
Re-enter new password:   << Re-Enter Password
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
 ... Success!
 

By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] Y  << Remove Anonymous users
 ... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] Y  << Disallow root login remotely
 ... Success!

By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] Y  << Remove test database
 - Dropping test database...
 ... Success!
 - Removing privileges on test database...
 ... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] Y  << Reload privilege
 ... Success!

Cleaning up...

All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MariaDB!

2. Install MariaDB from Debian Repository

Installing MariaDB from Debian base repository is a straightforward way, but this may have a bit old version of MariaDB.

sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install -y mariadb-server mariadb-client

MariaDB server service should now be up and running.

Use mysql_secure_installation to do the initial setup of the MariaDB server.

sudo mysql_secure_installation

Output:

NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB
      SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!

In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user.  If you've just installed MariaDB, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none):   << No Password - Press Enter
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MariaDB
root user without the proper authorisation.

Set root password? [Y/n] Y   << Change MariaDB root password
New password:   << Enter MariaDB root password
Re-enter new password:   << Re-enter MariaDB root password
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
 ... Success!


By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] Y  << Remove Anonymous users
 ... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] Y  << Disallow root login remotely
 ... Success!

By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] Y  << Remove test database
 - Dropping test database...
 ... Success!
 - Removing privileges on test database...
 ... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] Y  << Reload privilege tables
 ... Success!

Cleaning up...

All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MariaDB!
If MariaDB is installed from the Debian base repository, MariaDB root user can only log in from root Unix login or with sudo (root) due to Unix socket authentication.

You can follow the steps to disable Unix socket authentication and enable native password login in case you required.

Login as MariaDB root user.

$ sudo mysql -u root -p

OR

# mysql -u root -p
No password required

Execute below queries in MariaDB database.

use mysql;

update user set plugin='mysql_native_password' where user='root';

flush privileges; 

quit;

Now you can log in as MariaDB root from any Linux user account without prefixing sudo.

Access MariaDB

Use the below command to login into MariaDB server.

mysql -u root -p
Password required

Output:

Install MariaDB on Debian 9 - MariaDB Shell
Install MariaDB on Debian 9 – MariaDB Shell

Control MariaDB service

In case if you want to start/stop the MariaDB, you can use the following commands.

sudo systemctl start mariadb

sudo systemctl stop mariadb

Verify whether MariaDB is running or not.

sudo systemctl status mariadb

Conclusion

That’s All. I hope you have learned how to install MariaDB on Debian 9. You can also install phpMyAdmin to manage the MariaDB database over the web browser.

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