How To Install Tomcat 9.0 / 8.5 on Ubuntu 18.04 / Linux Mint 19

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Apache Tomcat (aka Tomcat Server) is an open source Java servlet container developed by the Apache Software Foundation.

Tomcat implements Java Servlet, JavaServer Pages (JSP), Java EL, and WebSocket, and provides a “pure Java” HTTP web server environment for running Java codes.

Here is the post about how to install Apache Tomcat 9.0 / 8.5 on Ubuntu 18.04 / Linux Mint 19.

Requirement

Update the repository index.

sudo apt update

Tomcat requires Java JDK to be installed on the machine. You can either install Oracle JDK or OpenJDK.

Apache Tomcat Version Latest Released Version Supported Java Versions
9.0.x 9.0.11 8 and later
8.5.x 8.5.33 7 and later

READ: How to Install Oracle Java JDK 10 / 8 on Ubuntu 18.04 / LinuxMint 19

For this demo, I am going with OpenJDK.

### OpenJDK 8 ###

sudo apt install -y openjdk-8-jdk wget

### OpenJDK 10 ###

sudo apt install -y default-jdk wget

Once Java is installed, you can verify the Java version by using the following command.

java -version

Output:

openjdk version "1.8.0_181"
OpenJDK Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_181-8u181-b13-0ubuntu0.18.04.1-b13)
OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.181-b13, mixed mode)

Create Tomcat Service Account

For best practice, Tomcat should never be run as a privileged user (root). So, create a low-privilege user for running the Tomcat service.

sudo groupadd tomcat
sudo mkdir /opt/tomcat
sudo useradd -g tomcat -d /opt/tomcat -s /bin/nologin tomcat

Download & Configure Apache Tomcat

Download the Apache Tomcat package from the official website.

Browser

Apache Tomcat 9:

Download Apache Tomcat 9.0

Apache Tomcat 8.5:

Download Apache Tomcat 8.5

Terminal

### Apache Tomcat 9.0 ###

wget http://www-us.apache.org/dist/tomcat/tomcat-9/v9.0.11/bin/apache-tomcat-9.0.11.tar.gz

### Apache Tomcat 8.5 ###

wget http://www-us.apache.org/dist/tomcat/tomcat-8/v8.5.33/bin/apache-tomcat-8.5.33.tar.gz

Extract the tomcat on to your desired (/opt/tomcat) directory.

sudo tar -zxvf apache-tomcat-*.tar.gz
sudo mv apache-tomcat-*/* /opt/tomcat/

Change the ownership of the directory to allow the tomcat user to write files to it.

sudo chown -R tomcat:tomcat /opt/tomcat/

Controlling Apache Tomcat

We can also use systemd to start the Tomcat service on system startup automatically.

Tomcat’s systemd service file requires java location. So, run the below command to list the java versions available on your system.

sudo update-java-alternatives -l

Output:

java-1.8.0-openjdk-amd64 1081 /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.8.0-openjdk-amd64

At this time, I have Java 1.8 on my system.

Create a tomcat systemd service file. Green ones depend on the environment, so change them accordingly.

sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/tomcat.service

Add the below information to Tomcat systemd service file.

[Unit]
Description=Apache Tomcat 9.x Web Application Container
Wants=network.target
After=network.target

[Service]
Type=forking

Environment=JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.8.0-openjdk-amd64
Environment=CATALINA_PID=/opt/tomcat/temp/tomcat.pid
Environment=CATALINA_HOME=/opt/tomcat
Environment='CATALINA_OPTS=-Xms512M -Xmx1G -Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=true'
Environment='JAVA_OPTS=-Djava.awt.headless=true'

ExecStart=/opt/tomcat/bin/startup.sh
ExecStop=/opt/tomcat/bin/shutdown.sh
SuccessExitStatus=143

User=tomcat
Group=tomcat
UMask=0007
RestartSec=10
Restart=always

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

Reload systemd daemon.

sudo systemctl daemon-reload

To start the Tomcat service; run:

sudo systemctl start tomcat

Check the status of Tomcat, run:

sudo systemctl status tomcat

Enable the auto start of Tomcat service on system boot:

sudo systemctl enable tomcat

Verify Apache Tomcat

By default, Apache Tomcat runs on port 8080. Use the netstat command to check the Tomcat service listening status.

sudo netstat -antup | grep 8080

Output:

tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:8080            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      12224/java

READ: netstat command not found on Ubuntu – Quick Fix

Firewall

You may need to allow Apache Tomcat server requests in the firewall so that users can access the application from the external network.

sudo ufw allow 8080

Configure Apache Tomcat Web UI

Tomcat comes with the web-manager and Host Manager for managing Tomcat. Both the Host Manager and Web Manager are password protected, and it requires a username and password to access.

Create a user with the manager-gui and admin-gui role to have access to web application manager and host-manager respectively. These two roles are defined in the tomcat-users.xml file.

sudo nano /opt/tomcat/conf/tomcat-users.xml

Place the following two lines (role and user definition) just above the last line.

rolename="admin-gui,manager-gui"/>
<user username="admin" password="password" roles="manager-gui,admin-gui"/>

For security reason, Web Manager and Host Manager are accessible only from the localhost, i.e., from the server itself.

To access web and host managers from the remote system, you would need to add your source network in the allow list. To do that, edit the below two files.

sudo nano /opt/tomcat/webapps/manager/META-INF/context.xml

sudo nano /opt/tomcat/webapps/host-manager/META-INF/context.xml

Update the below line on above files with source IP from which your accessing the web and host Manager. .* will allow everyone to have access to both managers.

allow="127\.\d+\.\d+\.\d+|::1|0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1|.*" />

OR

You can also allow part of your network only. For example: To allow 192.168.0.0/24 network only, you can use the below values.

allow="127\.\d+\.\d+\.\d+|::1|0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1|192.168.*" />

Restart the Tomcat service.

sudo systemctl restart tomcat

Access Tomcat

Open a browser and go to the below URL.

http://ip.add.re.ss:8080

You would get the Tomcat default page, and this confirms you that Apache Tomcat is successfully installed.

Tomcat 9.0:

Install Tomcat 9.0 on Ubuntu 18.04 - Tomcat 9.0 Default Page
Install Tomcat 9.0 on Ubuntu 18.04 – Tomcat 9.0 Default Page

Tomcat 8.5:

Install Tomcat 8.5 on Ubuntu 18.04 - Tomcat 8.5 Default Page
Install Tomcat 8.5 on Ubuntu 18.04 – Tomcat 8.5 Default Page

Web Manager: – Login Required. Username: admin, Password: password

Install Tomcat 9.0 on Ubuntu 18.04 - Login for Web Manager
Install Tomcat 9.0 on Ubuntu 18.04 – Login for Web Manager

Using web manager, you can deploy a new application, deploy an application in a specified context, start, stop, reload, and un-deploy an application.

Install Tomcat 9.0 on Ubuntu 18.04 - Tomcat Web Application Manager
Install Tomcat 9.0 on Ubuntu 18.04 – Tomcat Web Application Manager

Also, you can check the server status.

Install Tomcat 9.0 on Ubuntu 18.04 - Tomcat Server Status
Install Tomcat 9.0 on Ubuntu 18.04 – Tomcat Server Status

Host Manager: – Login Required. Username: admin, Password: password

Install Tomcat 9.0 on Ubuntu 18.04 - Login for Tomcat Host Manager
Install Tomcat 9.0 on Ubuntu 18.04 – Login for Tomcat Host Manager

Here, you can manage virtual hosts of Tomcat.

Install Tomcat 9.0 on Ubuntu 18.04 - Tomcat Virtual Host Manager
Install Tomcat 9.0 on Ubuntu 18.04 – Tomcat Virtual Host Manager

That’s All.

Further Reading

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How To Install Tomcat 9.0 / 8.5 on Ubuntu 18.04 / Linux Mint 19

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