How To Install Docker on Debian 9

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Install Docker on Debian 9
Install Docker on Debian 9

Docker is a free and open-source containerization software that helps to deploy, run applications in a container. The containers are similar to a virtual machine but consume fewer resources, easy to manage and can run anywhere regardless of the operating environment it is running in.

Docker uses cgroups and namespace to allow the independent containers to run within a single Linux instance.

This guide will help you install Docker on Debian 9.

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Docker needs a 64-bit version of Debian OS and the Kernel version should be at least 3.10.

Docker Editions

Docker is now available in two editions, namely.

  • Community Edition (CE)
  • Enterprise Edition (EE)

Here, we will install Docker Comunity Edition (CE) from the Docker repository.

Prerequisites

Uninstall older versions of Docker called docker or docker-engine along with associated dependencies. If your system does not have a Docker package, skip the below step.

sudo apt-get -y remove docker docker-engine docker.io

Contents such as volumes, images, and networks under the /var/lib/docker/ directory are preserved.

Setup Docker Repository

Install the below packages to have apt-get get the support of the https method.

sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install -y apt-transport-https ca-certificates wget software-properties-common

Add the GPG key for the Docker repository on your system.

wget https://download.docker.com/linux/debian/gpg 

sudo apt-key add gpg

Add the official Docker repository to the system by running below command in the terminal.

echo "deb [arch=amd64] https://download.docker.com/linux/debian $(lsb_release -cs) stable" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/docker.list

Update the apt database.

sudo apt-get update

Make sure you are installing Docker from the official repository, not from the default Debian repository.

sudo apt-cache policy docker-ce

You should see the output like below with the Docker repository details.

docker-ce:
  Installed: (none)
  Candidate: 5:19.03.5~3-0~debian-stretch
  Version table:
     5:19.03.5~3-0~debian-stretch 500
        500 https://download.docker.com/linux/debian stretch/stable amd64 Packages
     5:19.03.4~3-0~debian-stretch 500
        500 https://download.docker.com/linux/debian stretch/stable amd64 Packages
     5:19.03.3~3-0~debian-stretch 500
        500 https://download.docker.com/linux/debian stretch/stable amd64 Packages

Install Docker

Install Docker using the apt-get command.

sudo apt-get -y install docker-ce

Control Docker service

To start Docker, run:

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sudo systemctl start docker

To stop Docker service, run:

sudo systemctl stop docker

To restart Docker service, run:

sudo systemctl restart docker

To check the status of Docker service, run:

sudo systemctl status docker

To enable Docker service to autostart on system boot, run:

sudo systemctl enable docker

Verify Docker Installation

To test the Docker installation, we will run a hello-world container.

sudo docker run hello-world

The below output confirms that we have correctly installed Docker on Debian OS.

Unable to find image 'hello-world:latest' locally
latest: Pulling from library/hello-world
1b930d010525: Pull complete 
Digest: sha256:4fe721ccc2e8dc7362278a29dc660d833570ec2682f4e4194f4ee23e415e1064
Status: Downloaded newer image for hello-world:latest

Hello from Docker!
This message shows that your installation appears to be working correctly.

To generate this message, Docker took the following steps:
 1. The Docker client contacted the Docker daemon.
 2. The Docker daemon pulled the "hello-world" image from the Docker Hub.
    (amd64)
 3. The Docker daemon created a new container from that image which runs the
    executable that produces the output you are currently reading.
 4. The Docker daemon streamed that output to the Docker client, which sent it
    to your terminal.

To try something more ambitious, you can run an Ubuntu container with:
 $ docker run -it ubuntu bash

Share images, automate workflows, and more with a free Docker ID:
 https://hub.docker.com/

For more examples and ideas, visit:
 https://docs.docker.com/get-started/

Allow Non-root user to run Docker

By default, to run Docker commands, the user should have root privileges or equivalent privileges via sudo. Sometimes we may need to allow non-root users to run Docker containers, so follow the below steps to allow them to run containers.

Create a group docker, if it does not exist.

sudo groupadd docker

Add your user to the docker group, replace raj with your username.

sudo useradd -m raj

Add a user to the docker group.

sudo usermod -aG docker raj

Log out and log back in. You should now be able to run Docker commands without prefixing sudo.

docker run hello-world

Interested Topics

Docker Basic Topics

1: Top Important Docker Commands – Working with Docker Containers

2: Working with Docker Images – Building Docker Images

3: How to Build Docker Images with DockerFile

Docker Advanced Topics

1: How to Setup Docker Private Registry on CentOS 7

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2: How to Install and Configure Docker Swarm on CentOS 7

Conclusion

That’s All.

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